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To make my sculptures I have employed almost any process that I have the ability to use. My favorite process has been hot metal casting using the lost wax method. My original model can be sculpty, clay, wax or even a found object. A mold is made of the original that can be used to make a wax duplicate and that duplicate is sprued to allow the metal access to the mold,. The wax with a cup and spruing is then dipped many times in a ceramic shell liquid and coated with increasingly coarser grades of silica to make a thickness of at least 1/8" (thicker for larger or more solid pieces). The shell is placed in a 1600 degree kiln where the shell instantaneously vitrfies and the wax melts and burns out. Molten metal can then be poured into the cup and sprues filling the mold. When the metal cools the shell is broken off and the cup and sprues cut off. This process yields an accurate and exceptionally clean object.

I seldom use a casting by itself. Often my pieces consist of more than one figure or a figure placed in an environment. Blending steel, acrylic, glass,wood and bone with bronze allows me to make the statement I'm trying to achieve.

Recently glass has occupied a larger space in my work. Most of the glass I do is in a kiln; casting, fusing and slumping. While I most enjoy hot glass, I have not recently had access to a hot glass shop.